2015 CRI Primary and Secondary Sources | KPMG | BE

2015 Change Readiness Index Primary and Secondary Sources

2015 CRI Primary and Secondary Sources

More than 70 secondary data variables were used to calculate the 2015 Change Readiness Index as well as 22 primary survey question responses, which were gathered from 1,270 country experts from 127 countries around the world.


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The full list of primary and secondary data variable sand sources, and the primary survey questions are shown in the following tables, grouped by change readiness pillar.

Pillar 1: Enterprise capability

Enterprise capability Primary variables Secondary variables

Labor market N/A Hybrid (Rigidity of Employment (WB DB), Hiring and Firing Practices (WEF GCI), Cooperation in Labour-Employer Relations (WEFGCI)), Hybrid (Flexibility of Wage Determination (WEF GCI), Pay and Productivity (WEF GCI))

Economic diversification How effective is the government in your country at pursuing policies and measures that promote a well-diversified economy (that is, one in which a good range of different industry sectors contribute to gross domestic product? 

Hybrid (Diversity of Exports by Country Exported to (UNCTAD), Diversity of Exports by Variety of Products Exported (UNCTAD))

Economic openness N/A Hybrid (Tariff rate, applied, weighted mean, all products (WB WDI), Prevalence of trade barriers (WB WDI), Trade Freedom (IEF)), Hybrid (Time to export (WB DB), Time to import (WB DB)), Hybrid (Costto export (WB DB), Cost to import (WB DB)), Hybrid (Business impact of rules on FDI (WEF GCI), Prevalence of foreign ownership (WEF GCI))

Innovation, research and development In practice, how conducive is the policy and operating environment in your country to fostering innovation, including in the form of business R&D and the contributions of public research institutions to innovation in various R&D-intensive sectors? 

Hybrid (Capacity for Innovation (WEF GCI),Innovation System KEI (WB), Researchers in R&D per Million Persons (WB),R&D Expenditure (% of GDP) (WB), Quality of Scientific Research Institutions (WEF GCI), Company Spending on R&D (WEF GCI), University-Industry Collaboration in R&D (WEF GCI), Availability of Scientists and Engineers (WEF GCI))

Business environment

To what extent are registered private enterprises in your country free from excessive bureaucracy in doing business, in practice as well as by law? 

To what extent does your country’s government pursue policies that protect less competitive industries over promoting new, emerging industry sectors with greater growth potential?  

Business Freedom (IEF), Hybrid (Effect of taxation on incentives to invest (WEFGCI), Total tax rate (PWC)), Hybrid (Intensity of local competition (WEFGCI), Effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy (WEF GCI)), Hybrid (Time to start a business (WB DB), Cost to Start a Business (% of income per capita) (WBDB), Average cost of bankruptcy procedures (% of estate) (WB DB), Time taken to pay taxes (hours per year) (WB DB)), Hybrid (Strength of investor protection index (WB DB), Efficacy of corporate boards (WEF GCI))

Financial Sector How effective is the financial sector in your country—in practice, as well as in terms of the regulatory framework—at successfully balancing the need to enhance broad access to finance with promoting financial stability? 

Hybrid (Availability of Financial Services (WEF GCI), Financing Through Local Equity Market (WEF GCI), Venture Capital Availability (WEF GCI), Soundness of Banks (WEF GCI), Domestic Credit Provided by Banking Sector (WB WDI))

Infrastructure How effective is the government in your country at supporting and promoting the development ofquality, well-functioning infrastructure that advances socioeconomic development and economic growth? 

Quality of Overall Infrastructure (WEF GCI), Hybrid (Quality of Roads (WEF GCI),% Roads Paved (WB)), Hybrid (Quality of Air Transport Infrastructure (WEF GCI), Available Airline Seats (WEF GCI), Number of Ai rPassengers (WB WDI)), Hybrid (Quality of Electricity Supply (WEFGCI), Value Lost to Electrical Outages (WB WDI), Broadband Internet Subscribers per Head (WB WDI)), Hybrid (Quality of Railroad Infrastructure (WEFGCI), Quality of Port Infrastructure (WEF GCI))

Informal sector How effectively is the informal sector being integrated into the formal economy in your country?   N/A
Technology N/A Mobile Phone Subscribers


Pillar 2: Government capability

Government capability Primary variables Secondary variables
Macroeconomic framework Based on its management ofthe economy, to what extent does the government in your country pursue macroeconomic policies that foster macroeconomic stability (including low and stable inflation rates and sound public finances? and support long-term economic growth? 

Inflation Stability (IMF),Exchange Rate Stability (WB), Country Credit Rating (Institutional Investor),Gross National Savings (IMF), Average Inflation (IMF)

Public administration and state business relations  To what extent does the relationship between government and business in your country promote a healthy and dynamic economy (e.g., one that enables the private sector and government to respond effectively to changing conditions and new opportunities)? 

Government Effectiveness Index (WB WGI), Corruption Index (WB WGI), State Legitimacy (FSI), Public Services (FSI), Transparency of Government Policymaking (WEF GCI), Resource Efficiency (BTI), Political stability and absence of violence (WB WGI)

Regulation N/A Regulatory Quality Index (WB WGI), Efficiency of Legal Framework in Challenging Regulations (WEF GCI),Burden of government regulation (WEF GCI)

Fiscal and budgeting How well does the government mobilize and manage resources as needed to respond effectively to short-term negative shocks, without jeopardizing macroeconomic stability?   Wastefulness of Government Spending (WEF GCI), Government Budget Balance (% GDP) (OE), Gross Government Debt (% of GDP) (IMF)

Rule of law To what extent is 'respect for the rule of law' upheld in your country? That is, do national authorities give effect to and enforce policy reforms and regulations, in practice, supported by quality institutions, including an independent judiciary that operates with integrity?

Rule of Law Index (WB WGI), Organised Crime (WEF GCI), Efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes (WEF GCI), Rule of Law (BTI)

Government strategic planning and horizon scanning How effective is your government at taking steps to understand, via exercises such as horizon scanning, and capitalize on positive change opportunities? 

Environment and climate change How effective is your

government at taking steps to understand and respond to threats and

opportunities posed by climate change and other environmental protection

Environmental Performance

Index (Yale)
Food and energy security

How would you assess your country’s resilience in the short- to medium-term to future disruption or unavailability of critical food supplies due to risk factors such as drought, transport disruptions, fuel shortages, economic instability, conflict, etc.?

How would you assess your country’sresilience in the short- to medium-term to future disruption orunavailability of critical energy supply for domestic use due to risk factors such as transport disruptions, energy shortages, economic instability, conflict, etc.? 

Energy imports, net (% of energy use) (WB)

Land rights To what extent do land registration procedures within your country establish and enforce clear and official ownership of land?   Access to land (IFAD)
Security N/A Business costs of crime and violence (WEF CGI), Business costs of terrorism (WEF CGI)

Pillar 3: People & civil society capability

People & civil society Primary variables Secondary variables
Human capital N/A Adult Literacy Rate (WBWDI), Country capacity to retain talent (WEF GCI), Hybrid (Quality of Education (WEF GCI), Quality of Math and Science Education (WEF GCI), Quality of Management Schools (WEF GCI)), Hybrid (Secondary Enrolment Rate (WB WDI), Tertiary Enrolment Rate (WB WDI)), Hybrid (Availability of Training and Research Services (WEF GCI)), Extent of Staff Training (WEF GCI)

Entrepreneurship To what extent are there incentives in your country—available formally through policy initiatives and/or via the characteristics of the private sector itself—that encourage entrepreneurship? Entrepreneurship and

Opportunity Sub-Index (Legatum Institute)

Civil society To what extent are civil society organizations allowed to influence and participate in important policy debates related to solving humanitarian, economic, environmental and other development issues in your country? 

Hybrid (Political and social integration (BTI), Voice and Accountability (WB WGI), Human rights (FSI), EIU Democracy Index(EIU))

Safety nets To what extent do you think that migrant remittance transfers and other cash and in-kind transfers provided by NGOs, charities and other non-public-sector sources are channeled and allocated effectively, efficiently and transparently to provide social safety-net assistance to people in need in your country during difficult economic times?  Social Capital Sub-Index (Legatum Institute), Hybrid (Workers' Remittances and Compensation of Employees Received (WB WDI), External Intervention Measure (FSI))

Technology use N/A Internet Access in Schools (WEF GCI), Hybrid (Generic Top-Level Domains (ZookNIC), Country Code Top Level Domains (ZooKNIC), Wikipedia Monthly Edits (Wikimedia Foundation), Video Uploads on YouTube (Google))

Gender Do the laws and, importantly, the practices/customs of your country typically accord women the same opportunities as men in being able to participate in the economy?   Labour Force Participation (ILO), Gender Inequality Index (UNDP), Wage equality between women and men for similar work (WEF Genger Gap Report), Hybrid (Ratio of Female to Male Literacy Rate (WB WDI), Ratio of Female to Male Enrolment in Primary Education (WB WDI), Ratio of Female to Male Enrolment in Secondary Education (WB WDI), Ratio of Female to Male Enrolment in Tertiary Education (WB WDI))

Inclusiveness of growth To what extent would you say that economic growth in your country in the past few years has been 'inclusive growth'—meaning pro-poor and benefiting the entire population, rather than excluding significant parts of the population and regions within your country? 

Loss due to inequality inincome (%) (UN HDI), Uneven economic development (FSI), Hybrid (GINI Coefficient Index (WB WDI), Income share held by highest 20% (WB WDI), Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (WB WDI)

Demographics How well prepared is your country to cope with the challenges related to demographic shifts expected over the next decade—e.g., aging population or rising numbers of youth—that will impact your country’s capacity and capability to manage and respond to change? 

Working Age Population Forecast (UN), International Migrant Stock (WB WDI), Hybrid (Age Dependency Ratio (Old) (WB), Age Dependency Ratio (Young) (WB))

Access to information N/A Press Freedom Index

(Reporters Without Borders), E-Government Online Service (United Nations

E-Government Survey)
Health N/A Life Expectancy at Birth

(WB WDI), Infant Mortality Rate (WB WDI)


    Source acronyms
IEF Index of Economic Freedom
WB DB World Bank Doing Business

WB WDI World Bank World Development

WB World Bank
WEF GCI World Economic Forum Global

Competitiveness Index
UNCTAD United Nations Conference

on Trade and Development
IMF International Monetary Fund
FSI Failed States Index
OE Oxford Economics
ILO International Labour

UNDP United Nations Development

UN HDI/A United Nations Human

Development Index
EIU Economist Intelligence Unit
IMF International Monetary Fund
BTI Bertelsmann Transformation


*As is the case with indices that rely to an extent on secondary data, CRI scores and ranks can be affected by  statistical errors inherent in the underlying data. Additional statistical variation and uncertainty can result from the gaps in published  official data for certain secondary indicators, especially in countries with low statistical availability and quality. In limited instances, Oxford Economics has estimated missing data based on the best estimation techniques available. Risks in the use of survey data are also inherent, but were minimized through the use of well-respected sources for secondary survey data, and for the primary survey, through careful selection of respondents against strict criteria, and provision of guidance on the survey scoring systems.‎

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